Bangalore, officially known as Bengaluru (Kannada: ಬೆಂಗಳೂರು Bengalūru, [ˈbeŋɡəɭuːɾu] (  listen)), is the third largest city in India and is the center of India's fifth-largest metropolitan area. Located in southern India on the Deccan Plateau, it is the capital of the southern Indian state of Karnataka. Bangalore is known as the "Silicon Valley of India" because of its role as the nation's leading information technology (IT) exporter.[5][6][7] Located at a height of over 3,000 feet (914.4 m) above sea level, Bangalore is known for its pleasant climate throughout the year. Its elevation is the highest among the major large cities of India.[8] The city is amongst the top ten preferred entrepreneurial locations in the world.

The name "Bangalore" represents an anglicised version of the Kannada language name, "Bengaḷūru" ಬೆಂಗಳೂರು[ˈbeŋɡəɭuːru] (  listen). The earliest reference to the name "Bengalūru" was found in a ninth-century Western Ganga Dynastystone inscription on a "vīra gallu" (ವೀರಗಲ್ಲು) (literally, "hero stone", a rock edict extolling the virtues of a warrior). In this inscription found in Begur, "Bengalūrū" is referred to as a place in which a battle was fought in 890 CE. It states that the place was part of theGanga Kingdom until 1004 and was known as "Bengaval-uru", the "City of Guards" in Halegannada (Old Kannada).

Bangalore lies in the southeast of the South Indian state of Karnataka. It is in the heart of the Mysore Plateau (a region of the largerPrecambrian Deccan Plateau) at an average elevation of 900 m (2,953 ft).[56]:8 It is located at 12.97°N 77.56°E and covers an area of 741 km2 (286 sq mi).[57] The majority of the city of Bangalore lies in the Bangalore Urban district of Karnataka and the surrounding rural areas are a part of the Bangalore Rural district. The Government of Karnataka has carved out the new district of Ramanagara from the old Bangalore Rural district.

Bangalore has a tropical savanna climate (Köppen climate classification Aw) with distinct wet and dry seasons. Due to its high elevation, Bangalore usually enjoys a more moderate climate throughout the year, although occasional heat waves can make summer somewhat uncomfortable.[64] The coolest month is December with an average low temperature of 15.4 °C (59.7 °F) and the hottest month is April with an average high temperature of 36 °C (97 °F).[65] The highest temperature ever recorded in Bangalore is 38.9 °C (102 °F) (recorded in March 1931). However, the suburbs of bangalore recorded temperatures as high as 41 °C (106 °F). The lowest ever recorded is 7.8 °C (46 °F) (recorded in January 1884).[66][67] Winter temperatures rarely drop below 12 °C (54 °F), and summer temperatures seldom exceed 37 °C (99 °F). Bangalore receives rainfall from both the northeast and the southwest monsoons and the wettest months are September, October and August, in that order.[65] The summer heat is moderated by fairly frequentthunderstorms, which occasionally cause power outages and local flooding. The heaviest rainfall recorded in a 24-hour period is 179 millimetres (7 in) recorded on 1 October 1997.

Bengalūru's  523 billion (US$8.7 billion) economy (2006–07 Net District Income) makes it one of the major economic centres in India,[132] with the value of city's exports totalling  432 billion (US$7.2 billion) in 2004–05.[133] With an economic growth of 10.3%, Bangalore is the second fastest growing major metropolis in India,[134] and is also the country's fourth largest fast moving consumer goods (FMCG) market.[135] The Forbes magazine considers the city as one of "The Next Decade's Fastest-Growing Cities".[136] With a per capita income of  74709 (US$1,200) in 2006–07,[132] the city is the third largest hub for high-net-worth individuals and is home to over 10,000-dollar millionaires and about 60,000 super-rich people who have an investable surplus of  45 million (US$747,000) and  5 million (US$83,000) respectively.